Version: 7.x (Current)

Create a Node.js Microservice Tutorial

In this tutorial we'll see how to create and expose a Node.js Microservice using Node.js template from the Marketplace.

What We’ll Build#

In this tutorial we'll develop a simple Node.js microservice that exposes a route through the Mia-Platform API Gateway.

Specifically, we'll write an API that, when invoked, will reply based on the value of an environment variable. Moreover we'll create a CRUD for storing customers and orders and develop a Microservice that calculates the shipping cost for a specific order. If the order belongs to a new customer the shipping cost is reduced, otherwise, a default cost is applied.

Prerequisites#

We’ll assume that you have some familiarity with JavaScript and Node.js, but you can follow along even if you're coming from a different programming language. All concepts explained following are valid for all languages and frameworks.

Prepare your favorite IDE to interact with Git repositories.

Create CRUDs#

First of all open your project, and create the following MongoDB CRUD collections. In order to do this follow these steps:

Customers CRUD#

  1. In the Console select your project.
  2. Select Design section.
  3. Select the branch master.
  4. Go to section MongoDB CRUD and click Create new CRUD.
  5. Insert the name customers and press Create.
  6. Now you have to set your collection fields. Scroll to the Fields section and click Add New to create the following fields:
tip

You can accelerate the field creation process by importing them from JSON. In order to do this download orders crud JSON and customers crud JSON.

Field nameType
name (required)String
lastname (required)String
newCustomerBoolean

Orders CRUD#

Create orders CRUD with the following fields:

Field nameType
date (required)Date
orderItemsArray of Objects
customerIdObjectId
info

Check out this tutorial and see this short video to learn how to create and expose CRUDs

CRUD in Console

Now you should expose your collection through an Endpoint and create your first API.

  1. Go to section Endpoints and click Create new endpoint. Then enter the following information:

    • /customers as Base path.
    • CRUD as Type.
    • Select customers as CRUD.
  2. Click Create. You have just created your first API! The detail view shows other configurations that we'll use later. Scroll down to the Routes section to see an overview of the routes of your API.

  3. Create a new endpoint with the following information:

    • /orders as Base path.
    • CRUD as Type.
    • Select orders as CRUD.

CRUD in Console

  1. To confirm changes just press Commit & Generate. We suggest writing a proper title for each commit, in this case, we can type in Created CRUDs "customer", "orders" and the related endpoints. We can choose an existing branch or create a new one.
caution

All items in the design area are not saved until you click Commit & Generate. You can create different entities and then save all the work only at the end. Upon configuration save, the Console will generate updates for the Kubernetes configuration files in your project repository.

info

Check out the endpoint documentation for more information about the section and to discover all the potentialities of this feature.

Create the Microservice from the Marketplace Template#

tip

Watch this short video to learn how it's easy to create a Node.js Microservice from templates

A Microservice can be created starting from existing Templates. Starting from a Mia-Platform Template or using Mia-Platform Service Libraries has many advantages and allows your microservice to be compliant with all best practices(such as testing, logging, health routes, etc).

In the Marketplace you can find a list of Examples or Templates powered and supported by Mia-Platform that allows you to set-up microservices with a tested and pre-defined function.

We'll create a microservice from Node.js template:

  1. Go to section Microservices section and click Create a Microservice.
  2. Search the template Node.js Template, then select it.
  3. Now enter the following information:
    • get-shipping-cost as Name.
    • Select the suggested option as Docker Image Name.
  4. In the detail, go to the Microservice configuration section and set Memory Request Limit to 150 and CPU Limit to 100.

Now you have to expose the microservice:

  1. Go to Endpoints section and click Create new endpoint. Then enter the following information:

    • /shipping-cost-service as Base path.
    • Microservice as Type.
    • Select get-shipping-cost as Microservice.
  2. Click Create.

  3. Commit the changes

The code base#

info

The complete code of the microservice developed in this tutorial is available on Mia-Platform GitHub.

You can get access to your newly created microservice repository from the Microservice detail page, by clicking on View Repository button. The Clone button allows you to easily see SSH and HTTPS urls to clone the repository in your local machine.

Let's take a look at the codebase and let's get ready to code our microservice.

Clone the repository, and open the project with your favorite IDE. The code base it's structured as follows:

Microservice in Console

The project includes the following packages:

The project also includes several NPM scripts, later in the course we will see when and why to run them.

Health routes#

Let's go back to the Console, specifically go to the microservice detail page. You can see several configuration fields (check out this page for more details), in particular the probes section define the health routes for the Kubernetes pod:

  • The Readiness path provides k8s with information about when the container is ready to receive incoming traffic. The default route is /-/ready.
  • The Liveness path provides k8s with information about when the container is in a healthy state. The default route is /-/healthz.

These routes are called automatically by Kubernetes and the microservice you just created has a default implementation provided by the @mia-platform/custom-plugin-lib library.

info

Check out Kubernetes official documentation for more details about probes.

API Documentation#

Another important field in the microservice configuration is the API documentation path. This is the route called to fetch the automatically generated API Documentation to be shown in the API Portal. Even in this case, you don't have to write any code, this route is already integrated in the microservice.

As of now, our microservice doesn't expose any custom route. Later we'll see how to configure documentation for any route.

Now we'll try to deploy the Console project.

Deploy#

By deploying your Console project a new Kubernetes Pod will be created for your custom service. In this case we'll also release the previously created CRUDs:

  1. Go to section Deploy and click Create new CRUD.
  2. As environment select Development
  3. Select the correct branch. You can see the related last commits.
  4. Click Deploy

A pipeline will be triggered by the Console to start the deploy of your project.

The API Portal#

After the deploy the API Portal allows us to see the API Documentations for the chosen environments.

To access it, select the Docs tab in the top menu and select Development, as the environment you deployed to:

API Portal 1

For now, we can see the default exposed routes of CRUDs that we can use to read and manipulate the data of relative MongoDB collection. Later, here we'll see the routes of the microservice that we'll expose.

Let's code! Implement a route#

Now, we have to implement the route that calculates the shipping cost for a specific order; let's get back on the IDE and open the index.js file:

'use strict'
const customService = require('@mia-platform/custom-plugin-lib')()
module.exports = customService(async function index(service) {
/*
* Insert your code here.
*/
})

First we import the Mia service Node.js library, which creates the infrastructure ready to accept the definition of routes and decorators. The library is built on Fastify. The function returned by require, customService, expects an async function to initialize and configure the service.

service is a Fastify instance, that is decorated by the library to help you interact with Mia-Platform resources. You can use service to register any Fastify routes, custom decorations and plugin.

addRawCustomPlugin is a function that requires the HTTP method, the path of the route and a handler.

First, we'll add a simply hello world route that if called return a simply string, the index.js. Starting writing the route handler:

  1. Create a handlers folder at the root of the project
  2. In this folder add a file named ashello.js and write this code:
'use strict'
async function handler() {
return {
message: 'Hello by your first microservice',
}
}
const schema = {
response: {
200: {
type: 'object',
properties: {
message: {
type: 'string',
},
},
},
},
}
module.exports = {
handler,
schema,
}

The file must export a function, the handler, and optionally a JSON schema to validate the incoming request and the response returned by the route. This schema is used to automatically generate an error if the validation fails and to generate the API documentation for the API Portal. Check out Fastify documentation for more details. In this case the response will be an object with a message property.
In the handler we'll simply return the message object. It's not necessary specify any HTTP code, as default if no error occurs the response will have status code 200.

Now let's get back to index.js file and add the route GET /hello handled by the function previously written:

'use strict'
const customService = require('@mia-platform/custom-plugin-lib')()
const hello = require('./handlers/hello')
module.exports = customService(async function index(service) {
service.addRawCustomPlugin('GET', '/hello', hello.handler, hello.schema)
})

Import hello.js file and use addRawCustomPlugin to add the route. Thus function requires the HTTP method, the path of the route and a handler and an optionally JSON schema.

How to test? Let's write tests!#

Now, we could push code on the master, deploy and try, but Mia-Platform strongly encourages good use of tests. This allows us to test our microservice without put online and in addition, makes the code easier to evolve over time. After each change, we can run tests to check if all still works.

Let's write a simple test for /hello route:

Open test/index.test.js file and replace the "Insert your tests.." comment with the following code:

t.test('GET /hello', (t) => {
t.test('Correct message', async (t) => {
const response = await fastify.inject({
method: 'GET',
url: '/hello',
})
t.equal(response.statusCode, 200)
t.same(JSON.parse(response.payload), {
message: 'Hello by your first microservice',
})
})
t.end()
})

In this code, we are using the Tap library to write a test for the base success case.

Now run tests by the properly NPM script command. In terminal enter:

npm run test

The tests should be ok and you should see in the terminal the following messages:

Test success

Later in the tutorial we'll come back to write tests and exploring the topic.

Node Tap

Check out the official documentation for details about Tap features

Implement the route#

Now we have to implement the route GET /get-shipping-cost. This route will receive an orderId in the query string and return the correct shipping cost.

Write the handler#

Let's start writing the route handler: into the handlers folder add a file named getShippingCost.js as done previously.

First, define the schema for request and response:

...
const schema = {
querystring: {
type: 'object',
properties: {
orderId: { type: 'string' },
},
},
response: {
'200: {
type: 'object',
properties: {
shippingCost: { type: 'number' },
},
},
'4xx': {
type: 'object',
properties: {
error: { type: 'string' },
},
},
'5xx': {
type: 'object',
properties: {
error: { type: 'string' },
},
},
},
}

The route will accept an orderId and return the relative shipping cost if all goes ok. In case of error, it will return an appropriate response.

Now we have to start to write the handler, specifically our function will have to:

  1. Read from CRUD orders the order indicated by the query params
  2. Read from CRUD customers the customer related to the order
  3. If the customer document has the field newCustomer set as true return a value, otherwise return another. For now, we'll hardcode these values, later we'll get them from environment variables.

The code will be the following:

const DEFAULT_SHIPPING_COST = 1000
const NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST = 5000
// Get query params
const { orderId } = req.query
// Get proxy for interact with the Crud Service
const proxy = req.getDirectServiceProxy('crud-service', { protocol: 'http' })
const allowedStatusCodes = [200]
let orderCrudRes
try {
orderCrudRes = await proxy.get(`/orders/${orderId}`, null, {
allowedStatusCodes,
})
} catch (error) {
reply.code(404).send({
error: 'Order does not exist',
})
return
}
let order = orderCrudRes.payload
let customerCrudRes
try {
customerCrudRes = await proxy.get(`/customers/${order.customerId}`, null, {
allowedStatusCodes,
})
} catch (error) {
reply.code(404).send({
error: 'Customer does not exist',
})
return
}
const customer = customerCrudRes.payload
const { newCustomer } = customer
return {
shippingCost: newCustomer
? NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST
: DEFAULT_SHIPPING_COST,
}

With the getDirectServiceProxy method we have got a proxy for a platform service without passing through the Microservice Gateway. In this case, we have got a proxy for CRUD Service and use it to read documents from CRUDs collection.

allowedStatusCodes options allow to defines which status codes of the response are accepted. If the response status code is not contained in this array, the promise will be rejected.

Crud Service

To take in deeper how to use API exposed by the CRUD Service check out the CRUD Endpoints Documentation

Add the route#

Let's go back to index.js file and add the route GET /get-shipping-cost handled by the function write previously:

'use strict'
const customService = require('@mia-platform/custom-plugin-lib')()
const hello = require('./handlers/hello')
const getShippingCost = require('./handlers/getShippingCost')
module.exports = customService(async function index(service) {
service.addRawCustomPlugin('GET', '/hello', hello.handler, hello.schema)
service.addRawCustomPlugin(
'GET',
'/get-shipping-cost',
getShippingCost.handler,
getShippingCost.schema
)
})

Write the tests#

Now let's write a simple test for GET /get-shipping-cost route.
To simplify we will show only one test: the correct calculation of the shipping cost for a new customer. You can find the other tests (no new customer, customer/order doesn't found) in the [tutorial repository]((https://github.com/mia-platform/Node.js-Microservice-Tutorial).

Open test/index.test.js file and on the top add the Nock module:

...
const lc39 = require('@mia-platform/lc39')
const nock = require('nock')
nock.disableNetConnect()

We'll use it for mocks the call to the CRUD. In this way, we can simulate responses from HTTP requests. nock.disableNetConnect() indeed disable the real HTTP requests.

Now add the following test to tests/index.test.js file:

const t = require('tap')
const lc39 = require('@mia-platform/lc39')
const nock = require('nock')
const NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST = 5000
...
t.test('GET /get-shipping-cost', t => {
const CRUD_URL = 'http://crud-service'
t.test('New customer shipping cost', async t => {
const orderId = '1'
const mockedOrder = {
customerId: '2',
}
const { customerId } = mockedOrder
const mockedCustomer = {
customerVATId: customerId,
newCustomer: true,
}
const getOrderScope = nock(CRUD_URL)
.get(`/orders/${orderId}`)
.reply(200, mockedOrder)
const getCustomerScope = nock(CRUD_URL)
.get(`/customers/${customerId}`)
.reply(200, mockedCustomer)
const response = await fastify.inject({
method: 'GET',
url: '/get-shipping-cost',
query: {
orderId,
},
})
t.equal(response.statusCode, 200)
t.same(JSON.parse(response.payload), { shippingCost: NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST })
// Check if the mocked requests have been really called by the handler
getOrderScope.done()
getCustomerScope.done()
})
t.end()
})

In this code we have tested that the shipping cost for a new customer will be correctly returned.

Now run tests by the properly NPM script command:

npm run test

Finally commit and push changes to master.

Try the Microservice#

Now, deploy again the Console project to try the microservice.

After the deploy open the API Portal and use the Orders and Customers CRUD routes to add some test data.

Now you can try the GET /get-shipping-cost route:

API Portal try /get-shipping-cost

Environment variable#

To conclude, create a new environment variable to store the shipping cost for new customers.

An environment variable is a variable whose value is set outside the microservices. An environment variable is made up of a name/value pair. You can set a different value for each environment (Development, Production, etc.).

Create an environment variable#

Open your project, and create the ENV NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST. In order to do this follow these steps:

  1. In the Console select your project.
  2. Select the Environments section and click Add new environment variable.
  3. Insert the key DEV_NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST and enter 500 as value.
  4. Add a new ENV, set the key PROD_NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST and enter 400 as value.

In this way we have created the NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST that values 500 in the Development environment and 500 for Production.

info

Using MIA_.. as a prefix in the ENV you will set the value for all environments

Add the ENV to the microservice#

Now we have to add the [environment variable to the microservice:

  1. Go to section Microservices section and select the get-shipping-cost service.
  2. Go to section Environment variable configuration click Add Environment Variable
  3. Insert the key NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST and {{NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST}} as value.
  4. Commit the changes

In this way the microservice can access to NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST ENV. Using {{env name}} Mia-Platform automatically interpolates the correct value for each environment where the microservice will run.

Edit microservice#

Now we have to edit the microservice to use the ENV.

First we have to index.js and set the schema of the environment variables used by the microservice:

'use strict';
const customService = require('@mia-platform/custom-plugin-lib')({
type: 'object',
required: ['NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST'],
properties: {
NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST: { type: 'number' },
},
});
...

Now in the getShippingCost.js handler use the ENV, this will be available under config property of the request:

Furthermore log the value of the ENV.

This will be available under service.config instance:

async function handler(req, reply) {
const DEFAULT_SHIPPING_COST = 1000;
const { NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST } = this.config;
req.log.info({ value: NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST }, 'NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST value')
...
}
Logging

Check out the Guidelines for logs for more details about this topic

Finally adjust the tests, let's back to tests/index.test.js file: in the setupFastify method inject the NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST ENV:

t.test('get-shipping-cost', async t => {
// silent => trace for enabliing logs
const fastify = await setupFastify({
USERID_HEADER_KEY: 'userid',
GROUPS_HEADER_KEY: 'groups',
CLIENTTYPE_HEADER_KEY: 'clienttype',
BACKOFFICE_HEADER_KEY: 'backoffice',
MICROSERVICE_GATEWAY_SERVICE_NAME: 'microservice-gateway.example.org',
NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST: NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST,
})
...

Now you can commit and push the code to the master branch.

Final test#

Now, deploy the Console project to try the microservice.

After the deploy open the API Portal and try the GET /get-shipping-cost route:

API Portal try /get-shipping-cost

Logging#

In this tutorial we have created a microservice perfectly integrated with Mia-Platform, as the last step we'll find out how to monitor microservices logs:

  1. From your project go to section Logs.
  2. From here you can see select the environment and see the list of current running pods. Select Development as environment and search for get-shipping-cost-... pod.
  3. Click on the pod name to see all logs. Here you should see the logs with the value of the NEW_CUSTOMER_SHIPPING_COST ENV.

Microservice logs

Microservice repository#

You can access the complete repository of the tutorial here.