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Version: 8.9.x

Kustomize your configuration

Optionally you can use Kustomize as a project-level configuration manager. This feature allows you to modify the default configuration of your microservices on a per-environment basis in a simple declarative way with pure YAML. Learn how to enable this feature here.

With Kustomize, you can specify overlays to overwrite the default configuration of your microservices for a specific environment. To do so, you have to manually modify the project configuration by editing the following files inside the chosen environment folder (./overlays/%envId%/):

  • kustomization.yaml: file that contains the directives that define the resulting configuration for the services deployed in the selected environment %envId%. Here, you can specify both the new resources to add and the base resources to patch. For more info see here.
  • %resourceName%.yaml (put your actual resource name instead of %resourceName%): files containing the new resources to add to your base configuration.
  • %patchName%.patch.yaml (put your actual patch name instead of %patchName%): files containing possible partial modifications to your base project configuration.

The new project structure

To enable Kustomize, you need to manually change the project configuration structure from this one:

.
├── configuration
│ ├── %resourceName%.yaml
│ └── %envId%
| └── %resourceName%.yaml
└── variables
└── %envId%.env

To this one:

.
├── configuration
│ ├── kustomization.yaml
│ └── %resourceName%.yaml
└── overlays
└── %envId%
├── kustomization.yaml
├── variables.env
├── %resourceName%.yaml
└── %patchName%.patch.yaml

Firstly, you need to move all of your environment folders to a new first-level directory called overlays. Then, you have to place the .env variables files from variables in the corresponding environment folder of the new location and rename it to variables.env. Remember to add kustomization.yaml files.

Use cases

Patch replicas

To show you how Kustomize can be helpful, let's analyze a simple use case where we have a project and want to change the number of static replicas only for the production environment.

As a starting point, let's assume we have a project containing a microservice called hello-world with a deployment file similar to the following:

# file: ./configuration/helloworld.deployment.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: hello-world
spec:
replicas: 1
template:
spec:
containers:
- image: hello-world:latest

The base configuration sets the number of replicas to 1. Now, let's define an overlay for the production environment that changes the number of replicas from 1 to 2.

Add the following file:

# file: ./overlays/production/helloworld.patch.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: hello-world
spec:
replicas: 2

This way, when the production environment will be deployed, there will be two static replicas of the hello-world service. Notice that ./overlays/production/kustomization.yaml is automatically generated and can be left empty.

Patch all deployments

In addition, Kustomize allows you to specify a list of targets in the kustomization.yaml files included in overlays. This feature allows applying patches to multiple resources at once.

The snippet below includes all the available targets:

patches:
- path: <relative path to file containing patch>
target:
group: <optional group>
version: <optional version>
kind: <optional kind>
name: <optional name or regex pattern>
namespace: <optional namespace>
labelSelector: <optional label selector>
annotationSelector: <optional annotation selector>

For example, imagine you want to inject a sidecar proxy to all your Kubernetes deployments.

Let's suppose you already have a couple of microservices with the following deployments:

# file: ./configuration/helloworld.deployment.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: hello-world
spec:
replicas: 1
template:
spec:
containers:
- image: hello-world:latest
---
# file: ./configuration/goodbyeworld.deployment.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: goodbye-world
spec:
replicas: 1
template:
spec:
containers:
- image: hello-world:latest

First off, you need to create the patch containing the sidecar container specification in the environment of interest (e.g. development).

# file: ./overlays/development/sidecar.patch.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: not-important
spec:
template:
spec:
containers:
- name: istio-proxy
image: docker.io/istio/proxyv2
args:
- proxy
- sidecar

Then, to apply the patch to all your Deployments, you have to manually edit the kustomization.yaml file in the selected overlay directory. For instance, if you want to inject the sidecar in the development environment, the corresponding kustomization.yaml would look like this:

# file: ./overlays/development/kustomization.yaml
resources:
- deployments.yaml

patches:
- path: sidecar.patch.yaml
target:
kind: Deployment
info

When using target, the metadata.name of the patch will be ignored.

Once deployed, you will see the two Deployment resources with an additional istio-proxy container.